Crystallization under Nanoscale Confinement

Crystal growth under confinement can significantly influence crystallization pathways and crystal polymorphism, particularly when the length scales are comparable to the critical size of the growing nucleus. In some cases, confined crystallization can result in polymorph stability rankings that differ from the bulk. Crystallization within nanoscale reactors such as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and controlled pore glass (CPG) allow for the examination of nucleation and phase transformations, as well as thermal correlations to crystal size and preferred orientations of known crystal morphologies. An understanding and control of these parameters are fundamental to the molecular electronics and pharmaceutical industries.